Primary source references As a preface to this document, I want to point out that it is a shame that we have to continue to refute the same arguments that evolutionists keep bringing up over and over again in their attempts to argue against the fact of creation, which fact has been well established since the day the earth was created ex nihilo several thousand years ago. It is also a shame that the masses have bought all this based on some circular reasoning about fossils, where fossils tend to be found buried, similarities between various life forms, the presence of certain decay products in rocks, and other inherently speculative arguments about the past, based on phenomena that exist in the present. If I hope to accomplish anything, it will be to simply encourage critical thinking. One must get past the arguments ad populum that its popularity counts for something , ad hominem that if you attack the person making the argument, this counts for something , and especially ad baculum that there are people who have the clout to decree it as true , to ask the key questions and challenge the unsubstantiated assumptions and thinking of those who would hold to the evolution position. Today there are an increasing number of anti-creationist authors who are producing books and periodicals that make this relatively brief presentation insufficient to deal with all the points in dispute. Those defending creation today who don’t have the time to devote their life’s study to gaining expertise in all fields of inquiry must principally be prepared to think critically, logically, and challenge unsubstantiated assumptions made by these people. They must also keep a level head in the face of some vicious attacks and diatribes that will be directed against them, as is advised in the scriptures 1 Peter 3: By way of definitions, I want to point out that when I speak of “evolution,” I am referring to the popular contemporary use of the word, which in a nutshell is the belief that all life forms are related by ancestry, and that the first life form occurred spontaneously, all due to completely natural processes. When I speak of “creation,” I am referring to the inherently obvious fact that the origin of all life forms can be attributed to a creator who purposefully created them with planning and intent, and the documented fact that this occurred over the course of a week’s time several thousand years ago. This document is not a scientific thesis, but an apologetic intended to be submitted and defended by me in an interactive, online electronic forum.
Everything Worth Knowing About … Scientific Dating Methods
You will have to alter at least one of those points. Except, when there was no motion. On a computer screen interlaced recordings are annoying to watch because the lines are really disturbing. Especially in scenes where there’s movement from left to right right to left you see the interlacing, like in this example: The text at the bottom scrolls from right to left and thus leaves you with mice teeth because this frame consists of 2 snapshots of time, as described above.
Mice teeth because of an up-down movement.
The subject of ‘Molluscs in Archaeology’ has not been dealt with collectively for several decades as most previous volumes in this subject area have been confined to studies of either land or marine molluscs, or mollusc shells as artifacts.
Public Domain Constructing an Obelisk Although the ancient Egyptians recorded a great deal about the meaning of obelisks, they left us little about the process by which obelisks were made. The conventional explanation is that the ancient Egyptians chiseled into granite blocks with copper tools and then inserted wooden wedges which were soaked with water.
As the wooden wedges were soaked they expanded – causing the granite to split apart. This is similar to how ice freezing in the cracks of boulders can cause the cracks to widen, forming fractures called joints. This process was probably used to carve out the blocks that would be made into obelisks. It was originally thought that the obelisk stone was also pummeled with diorite balls, which have been found all over Egypt, but now archaeologists believe that they were more likely used as ball-bearings in moving the obelisk instead.
There Were Giants in Those Days
Carbon , Radiometric Dating and Index Fossils Carbon dating is used to determine the age of biological artifacts up to 50, years old. This technique is widely used on recent artifacts, but educators and students alike should note that this technique will not work on older fossils like those of the dinosaurs alleged to be millions of years old. This technique is not restricted to bones; it can also be used on cloth, wood and plant fibers.
Carbon dating has been used successfully on the Dead Sea Scrolls, Minoan ruins and tombs of the pharaohs among other things. Carbon is a radioactive isotope of carbon.
There Were Giants in Those Days “There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare [children] to them, the same [became] mighty men which [were] of old, men of renown.”.
Over the last 40 years, there has been a discernible increase in the number of scholars who have focused their research on early industrial organizations, a field of study that has come to be known as Archaeotechnology. Archaeologists have conducted fieldwork geared to the study of ancient technologies in a cultural context and have drawn on the laboratory analyses developed by materials scientists as one portion of their interpretive program. Corroded iron from the Java Sea Wreck.
Chinese Warring States arrowhead dating to about — B. A wrought-iron Roman cleaver. Large spear from Burkino Faso, Africa.
Everything Worth Knowing About Scientific Dating Methods This dating scene is dead. The good dates are confirmed using at least two different methods, ideally involving multiple independent labs for each method to cross-check results. Sometimes only one method is possible, reducing the confidence researchers have in the results. Methods fall into one of two categories: These methods — some of which are still used today — provide only an approximate spot within a previously established sequence:
Books, Manuals, Documents, and Artifacts Frank da Cruz Columbia University Most recent update: Sat Apr 4 (mostly in Artifacts) All .
Radioactive decay[ edit ] Example of a radioactive decay chain from lead Pb to lead Pb. The final decay product, lead Pb , is stable and can no longer undergo spontaneous radioactive decay. All ordinary matter is made up of combinations of chemical elements , each with its own atomic number , indicating the number of protons in the atomic nucleus. Additionally, elements may exist in different isotopes , with each isotope of an element differing in the number of neutrons in the nucleus.
A particular isotope of a particular element is called a nuclide. Some nuclides are inherently unstable. That is, at some point in time, an atom of such a nuclide will undergo radioactive decay and spontaneously transform into a different nuclide.
Photos from Last Refuge. The tracks included those of a human heel ball thirteen inches wide! It doesn’t make a big deal about them–no theological points about them except that God’s people could defeat anyone. Scripture states that Goliath was about 9 feet tall. Og, King of Bashan described above was thought to have been taller; his bed needed to be made of iron and was about 15 feet by 6 to 7 feet wide literally, king sized.
Chronological dating, or simply dating, is the process of attributing to an object or event a date in the past, allowing such object or event to be located in a previously established usually requires what is commonly known as a “dating method”. Several dating methods exist, depending on different criteria and techniques, and some very well known examples of disciplines using.
The development of the process was likely initiated as glass blowers experimented with molds as a way of producing special surface effects on their vessels. For instance, with pattern molding, the parison was initially shaped inside a mold that had been sculpted with diamonds, facets, circles, etc.. The mold would impart these designs to the body of the vessel.
Typically the process was completed by removing the parison from the mold and blowing and spinning it in an off-hand fashion until the desired shape and size were achieved. The second step in the transition to molding involved the use of what are known as dip molds. In this circumstance, the size and shape of the parison was complete when it was removed from the mold.
Constructing an Obelisk: How the True Rocks of Eternity were Made
An approach to systematically evaluate possible flakes is explicated. Abstract Archaeologists have long struggled with distinguishing lithic materials modified by humans artifacts from natural objects e. This problem is especially difficult for finds of small numbers of flake-like lithic specimens, and particularly for very old finds. We attempt to address the artifact versus geofact problem at a paleontology site by employing three systematic and objective tests on the two recovered possible artifacts.
First, they are compared with debitage attributes typically expected of artifacts and geofacts based on published experimental and actualistic data. Second, they are compared in terms of nine of these attributes with a toolstone sample from the site excavation matrix.
Wine History science and social impact through time . One path of wine history could follow the developments and science of grape growing and wine production; another might separately trace the spread of wine commerce through civilization, but there .
Herbchronology Dating methods in archaeology[ edit ] Same as geologists or paleontologists , archaeologists are also brought to determine the age of ancient materials, but in their case, the areas of their studies are restricted to the history of both ancient and recent humans. Thus, to be considered as archaeological, the remains, objects or artifacts to be dated must be related to human activity.
It is commonly assumed that if the remains or elements to be dated are older than the human species, the disciplines which study them are sciences such geology or paleontology, among some others. Nevertheless, the range of time within archaeological dating can be enormous compared to the average lifespan of a singular human being. As an example Pinnacle Point ‘s caves, in the southern coast of South Africa , provided evidence that marine resources shellfish have been regularly exploited by humans as of , years ago.
It was the case of an 18th-century sloop whose excavation was led in South Carolina United States in Dating material drawn from the archaeological record can be made by a direct study of an artifact , or may be deduced by association with materials found in the context the item is drawn from or inferred by its point of discovery in the sequence relative to datable contexts. Dating is carried out mainly post excavation , but to support good practice, some preliminary dating work called “spot dating” is usually run in tandem with excavation.
Dating is very important in archaeology for constructing models of the past, as it relies on the integrity of dateable objects and samples. Many disciplines of archaeological science are concerned with dating evidence, but in practice several different dating techniques must be applied in some circumstances, thus dating evidence for much of an archaeological sequence recorded during excavation requires matching information from known absolute or some associated steps, with a careful study of stratigraphic relationships.
In addition, because of its particular relation with past human presence or past human activity, archaeology uses almost all the dating methods that it shares with the other sciences, but with some particular variations, like the following:
The various dating techniques available to archaeologists by Michael G. Furthermore, when you consider that many archaeological sites will contain numerous types of artifacts that permit the use of multiple dating methodologies, a modern archaeologist can often employ cross-dating methodologies which can allow for extremely accurate dating as far back as 10, years in some regions. Natural Dating Techniques A modern archaeologist has almost half a dozen natural dating techniques that she can apply in the field that she can use to quickly determine an approximate date range, which, in the cases of varve analysis and dendrochronology, can often be used to decrease the date range estimate to a matter of just a few years.
One of the oldest natural dating techniques is geochronology, which is based on the principle of superposition — an object, or layer, on top must have been placed there at a later point in time. Once a geologist has determined the absolute age of a geological formation, the archaeologist can assign an indirect date to objects found in the formation.
Before more precise absolute dating tools were possible, researchers used a variety of comparative approaches called relative dating. These methods — some of which are still used today — provide only an approximate spot within a previously established sequence: Think of it as ordering rather than dating.
The Grooved Spheres 2. Giant Stone Balls of Costa Rica Workmen hacking and burning their way through the dense jungle of Costa Rica to clear an area for banana plantations in the s stumbled upon some incredible objects: They varied in size from as small as a tennis ball to an astonishing 8 feet in diameter and weighing 16 tons! Although the great stone balls are clearly man-made, it is unknown who made them, for what purpose and, most puzzling, how they achieved such spherical precision.
Impossible Fossils Fossils, as we learned in grade school, appear in rocks that were formed many thousands of years ago. A fossil of a human handprint, for example, was found in limestone estimated to be million years old. What appears to be a fossilized human finger found in the Canadian Arctic also dates back to million years ago.
And what appears to be the fossil of a human footprint, possibly wearing a sandal, was found near Delta, Utah in a shale deposit estimated to be million to million years old. Another fossilized human hand discovered in Bogota Columbia , belonging to Gutierrez collection. The rock which contains it is millions of years old. Out-of-Place Metal Objects Humans were not even around 65 million years ago, never mind people who could work metal.
So then how does science explain semi-ovoid metallic tubes dug out of million-year-old Cretaceous chalk in France?
Creation vs. Evolution
Renaissance Now, let’s look at some specific examples. One type of atom that does not normally react is Neon. See the picture to the left. It already has the correct number of electrons in it’s outside electron layer so Neon does not react. Neon, along with Helium and Argon are known as non-reacting gasses because they do not need to react to be stable. Other types of atoms such as Hydrogen, Carbon, and Oxygen do not have the correct number of electrons to be stable by itself.
Per Soasta/Google research from , images were the 2nd highest predictor of conversions with the best pages having 38% fewer images.. Image optimization consists of different measures that can reduce the file size of your images. It ultimately depends on what visual fidelity your images require.
At the time that Darwin’s On the Origin of Species was published, the earth was “scientifically” determined to be million years old. By , it was found to be 1. In , science firmly established that the earth was 3. Finally in , it was discovered that the earth is “really” 4. In these early studies the order of sedimentary rocks and structures were used to date geologic time periods and events in a relative way.
At first, the use of “key” diagnostic fossils was used to compare different areas of the geologic column. Although there were attempts to make relative age estimates, no direct dating method was available until the twentieth century. However, before this time some very popular indirect methods were available.
Fuente Magna, the Controversial Rosetta Stone of the Americas
Herbchronology Dating methods in archaeology[ edit ] Same as geologists or paleontologists , archaeologists are also brought to determine the age of ancient materials, but in their case, the areas of their studies are restricted to the history of both ancient and recent humans. Thus, to be considered as archaeological, the remains, objects or artifacts to be dated must be related to human activity. It is commonly assumed that if the remains or elements to be dated are older than the human species, the disciplines which study them are sciences such geology or paleontology, among some others.
Radiometric dating or radioactive dating is a technique used to date materials such as rocks or carbon, in which trace radioactive impurities were selectively incorporated when they were formed. The method compares the abundance of a naturally occurring radioactive isotope within the material to the abundance of its decay products, which form at a known constant rate of decay.
It features beautifully engraved anthropomorphic characters, zoological motifs characteristic of the local culture, and, more surprisingly, two types of scripts —a proto-Sumerian ancient alphabet and a local language of the ancient Pukara, forerunner of the Tiahuanaco civilization. Wikimedia Commons The ancient relic was discovered accidentally by a farmer working on a private estate owned by the Manjon family. The owners subsequently delivered it to the city hall of La Paz in in return for land near the capital.
Around the same time, Bolivian archaeologist Max Portugal Zamora learned of its existence and attempted, unsuccessfully, to decipher the unusual inscriptions, not least because he failed to recognize that the writing upon the bowl was a type of cuneiform text dating back some 5, years. They were eventually put in contact with Maximiliano, a year-old local who, after seeing a picture of the bowl, claimed it was once in his possession.
Not realizing its significance, Maximiliano admitted that he had used the bowl to feed his pigs. The Fuente Magna Bowl was found to have two types of scripts engraved on the inside.